TNO is the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research. TNO is the largest fully independent Research, Development and Consultancy organisation in the Netherlands with a staff of about 3,000 and a total annual turnover of more than 500 million Euros. It derives a significant portion of its contract R&D from foreign private sector, governments and international organisations. TNO’s primary tasks are to support and assist trade and industry including SME’s, governments and others in technological innovation and in solving problems by rendering services and transferring knowledge and expertise. TNO participates in many EU programmes aiming at technological development. TNO has conducted co-operation agreements with many foreign research institutes and companies in Western, Central and Eastern Europe, USA, Canada, Japan and India. The expertise group Climate, Air and Sustainability (CAS) is an expert centre and contract research unit for industry and government in the field of sustainable development and environmentally oriented process innovation. The expertise group investigates the processing of anthropogenic pollutants in the atmosphere and their influence on the environment and climate change.
TNO will co-lead WP2 and will be actively involved in WP3, WP4 and WP5. The core of TNO’s role is its expertise in preparing bottom-up model-ready emissions data. In WP2 TNO is the main provider of emissions data and TNO’s LOTOS-EUROS model will be used to generate nature runs on the European scale with full chemistry and aerosols. In WP3 it will complement the work of the JRC EDGAR team with its more regional European scale expertise on emission ratio’s. In WP4 the focus will be on making a family of grids based on uncertainty analysis on a very high resolution for the EU and in WP5 emission timing modules will be delivered and tested to improve the forward runs.